The United States' decade-long transition from a paper- to technology-based information infrastructure has always been recognized as an initial step-a laying of the foundation-for future changes to the delivery of care. An increasingly important focal area for improvement is population health. Numerous policies and programs now require healthcare organizations to manage the risks, outcomes, utilization, and health of entire groups of individuals. Nonetheless, current health information technology (IT) systems are not ready to support population health improvements effectively and efficiently. Existing health IT systems were designed for organizations that are structurally, operationally, and culturally focused on individual care delivery, rather than improving health for a population. Opportunities exist to align health IT resources and population health management strategies to fill the gaps among technological capabilities, use and the emerging demands of population health. To realize this alignment, healthcare leaders must think differently about the types of data their organizations need, the types of partners with whom they share information, and how they can leverage new information and partnerships for evidence-based action.